Introduction – To safeguard quality and safety in modern day healthcare, health professionals from different specialties need to learn how to communicate with one another and to effectively use feedback. Providing the principles of interprofessional feedback can support teachers in preparing students for giving and using feedback in dialogues with interprofessional peers.
Aim – In this study we aimed to develop principles for giving and using interprofessional feedback, by combining findings from a literature study with outcomes of a Delphi study on feedback and interprofessional education.
Materials and methods – We performed a critical review of the literature on feedback, and on interprofessional education resulting in an initial framework with seven feedback criteria and corresponding principles. These principles were input for a Delphi study amongst international, leading scholars in the fields of feedback (n=5) and interprofessional education (n=5). In two rounds, experts’ individual (dis)agreement with the content and structure of the initial framework, as well as their suggestions for improvement were collected and used to improve the framework.
Results – The final framework consists of seven criteria regarding feedback dialogues: 1. Open and respectful; 2. Relevant; 3. Timely; 4. Dialogical; 5. Responsive; 6. (supports individual) Sense making; and 7. Actionable. For each criterion, the framework describes feedback principles for the feedback provider and user as well as specific elements that should be taken into account in an interprofessional health care context. Expert agreement with the framework increased between the two rounds of the Delphi study.
Discussion – The resulting framework can provide guidance to teachers and students in interprofessional education, therewith contributing to both student and teacher feedback literacy. Future research may investigate: if and how students improve in giving and using feedback after using the framework and hindering and supporting factors for applying the principles in their clinical rotations.